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  当前位置 -> 方管知识- 分析电焊大口径方管时对人体有哪些危害? 发布时间:(2019/1/29)

分析电焊大口径方管时对人体有哪些危害?


大口径方管电焊作业的健康危害因素很多,养家糊口挣钱的前提下,我们还要更多预防关爱身体健康,那么今天为大家讲解一下电焊具体有哪些危害 .大口径方管电弧焊接时,焊条中的焊芯、药皮和金属母材在电弧高温下熔化、蒸发、氧化、凝集,产生大量金属氧化物及其他物质的烟尘,长期吸入可引起焊工尘肺。电焊工尘肺一般发生的密闭、通风不良的作业条件下,发病工龄平均为18a左右。肺通气功能测定表明接触电尘可引起电焊工一定程度的肺通气功能损伤,电焊载FVC1.0、FEV1.0%、MMF、V5050、VP2525、PEFR等肺通气功能均明显降低;吸烟因素与接尘因素对电焊工的肺通气功能可能产生协同作用;电焊工的肺通气操作有随接尘工龄的延长而加重的趋势。
There are many health hazards in large caliber square pipe welding. On the premise of making a living and earning money, we still need to take more care of our health. Today, we will explain the specific hazards of electric welding. In large caliber square pipe arc welding, the welding cores, coating and metal base materials in the electrode melt, evaporate, oxidize and agglomerate at high arc temperature, resulting in a large number of metal oxidation. Long-term inhalation of fumes and other substances can cause welder pneumoconiosis. The average length of service for welder pneumoconiosis is about 18 years under the closed and poorly ventilated working conditions. The pulmonary ventilation function test showed that exposure to electro-dust could cause a certain degree of pulmonary ventilation function damage in welders. The pulmonary ventilation function of welders loaded with FVC1.0, FEV1.0%, MMF, V5050, VP2525 and PEFR were significantly reduced. Smoking and dust exposure factors may have synergistic effects on the pulmonary ventilation function of welders. The pulmonary ventilation operation of welders tended to aggravate with the extension of the duration of exposure to dust.
(2)锰中毒
(2) Manganese poisoning
各种焊件和焊条中均有数量不等的锰,一般焊芯中的含锰量很低,只有0.3%~0.6%左右。为了提高机械强度、耐磨、搞腐蚀等性能,使用含锰条时,含锰可高达23%。在通风不良场所如船舱、锅炉或密闭容器内施焊,长期吸入含锰的烟尘可发生锰中毒,可检出血锰、尿锰升高,神经系统功能改变,发锰测定亦可作为锰中毒早期筛检指标。
Manganese is found in all kinds of welding parts and electrodes. Generally, the manganese content in the core is very low, only about 0.3%-0.6%. In order to improve mechanical strength, wear resistance and corrosion resistance, manganese content can be up to 23% when using manganese bar. Manganese poisoning can occur when welding in poorly ventilated places such as cabins, boilers or closed containers. Manganese poisoning can occur when smoke and dust containing manganese are inhaled for a long time. Manganese elevation in blood and urine can be detected. Changes in nervous system function can also be detected. Manganese determination can also be used as an early screening index for manganese poisoning.
(3)电焊烟热
(3) welding fume heat
电焊烟热也称焊工热,是金属烟热的一种,由吸入金属氧化物所致的以骤起体温升高和外周血白细胞计数增多为主要表现的全身性疾病,常在接金属气氧化物烟后6~12h起发病,有头晕、乏力、胸闷、气急、肌肉关节酸痛,以后发热,白细胞增多,重者在畏寒、寒颤。
Welding fume heat, also known as welder heat, is a kind of metal fume heat. It is a systemic disease caused by inhalation of metal oxides, characterized by sudden rise of body temperature and increase of peripheral blood white blood cell count. It often occurs 6 to 12 hours after exposure to metal oxide fumes. It has dizziness, fatigue, chest tightness, shortness of breath, soreness of muscles and joints, later fever, increase of white blood cells, and severe people are afraid of cold and shivering. This is the case.
大口径方管
Large caliber square pipe
(4)对眼及皮肤的影响
(4) Effect on eyes and skin
紫外线(UVR)和红外线(IFR)对眼及皮肤的操作是电焊作业职业损害的一个重要方面。电焊工眼部症状明显增多常有报道,表现为电光性眼炎、慢性睑缘炎、结膜炎、晶体混浊等,且慢性脸缘炎、结膜炎患病率有随工龄增加而增设的趋势。过量UVR暴露的主要损害为光敏性角膜炎,电焊工白内障与红外线接触有关。国外最近的研究表明,工人接触过量UVR会有发生非黑色素细胞皮肤癌和其他诸如眼恶性黑色素瘤等慢性疾病的危险。
The operation of ultraviolet (UVR) and infrared (IFR) on eyes and skin is an important aspect of occupational damage in welding operation. It is often reported that the ocular symptoms of welders increase markedly, such as electro-optic ophthalmitis, chronic blepharitis, conjunctivitis, lens opacity, etc. The prevalence of chronic facial and conjunctivitis increases with the increase of working years. The main damage of excessive UVR exposure is photosensitive keratitis, and cataract in welders is related to infrared exposure. Recent studies abroad have shown that workers exposed to excessive UVR are at risk of developing non-melanocytic skin cancer and other chronic diseases such as malignant melanoma of the eye.
(5)对生殖系统的影响
(5) Effects on reproductive system
生殖毒性的结局意义重大,故近10年来国内外开展了一些关于电焊作业生殖毒性的研究,主要涉及男工精液质量,女工生殖结局及损害机制。研究表明:电女工月经的经量增加、周期缩短、经期延长、白带增加发病率高于对照组,自然流产、早产、痛经、经量均较对照组高。锰中毒男工精液外观均匀灰白色,较正常,平均液化时间比对照组延长。检验结果证明,锰中毒男工平均1次射精量、精子总数、精子存活率及活动精子均比对照组下降,锰中毒男工精子畸形率明显高于对照组。认为金属锰能够影响男工生精系统,对精子的发育有直接毒作用,并能杀伤精子,从而引起男性精质量的改变。国外也有报道电焊作业工作性激素分泌改变,精子质量下降,但对子代的性别比例没有影响。
The outcome of reproductive toxicity is of great significance. Therefore, in the past 10 years, some studies on reproductive toxicity of electric welding have been carried out at home and abroad, mainly involving the quality of semen, reproductive outcome and damage mechanism of female workers. The results showed that the incidence of increased menstruation, shortened cycle, prolonged menstruation and increased leucorrhea was higher than that of the control group, and the incidence of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, dysmenorrhea and menstrual volume were higher than those of the control group. The semen appearance of male workers with manganese poisoning was even grey and white, and the average liquefaction time was longer than that of the control group. The results showed that the average ejaculation volume, total sperm count, sperm survival rate and motile sperm of male workers with manganese poisoning were lower than those of the control group, and the sperm malion rate of male workers with manganese poisoning was significantly higher than that of the control group. It is believed that manganese can affect the spermatogenic system of male workers, have direct toxic effects on sperm development, and kill sperm, thus causing changes in the quality of male sperm. There are also reports of changes in sex hormone secretion and sperm quality in welding operations abroad, but there is no effect on the sex ratio of offspring.
(6)对内脏的影响
(6) Visceral effects
通过B超过检查探讨电焊对作业工人肝脾的影响。结果电焊作业组工作左肝长、厚,右肝斜厚及脾厚均高于对照组,并有显著性差异。电焊作业工人肝脾存在一定损害,且随工龄延长有加重趋势。国外有报道,胰腺内分泌肿瘤在电焊工中发生的危险度也明显高于正常人群。
The effect of electric welding on the liver and spleen of workers was studied by B-mode ultrasonography. Results The length and thickness of left liver, oblique thickness of right liver and spleen in welding group were higher than those in control group, and there were significant differences. The liver and spleen of welded workers were damaged to some extent, and the damage tended to aggravate with the prolongation of service life. It has been reported abroad that the risk of pancreatic endocrine tumors in welders is also significantly higher than that in normal people. 标签:
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